Fibroids & Polyps
Fibroids, or leiomyomata, are non-malignant smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. They can vary in number, size and location in the uterus including: the outside facing the pelvic cavity (subserosal), the inside facing the uterine cavity (submucosal) and in between inside the uterine wall (intramural). Most small fibroids have minimal or no effect on fertility and may be ignored, but in certain cases it does contribute. Polyps are endometrial tissue protruding into the uterine cavity (an overgrowth of tissue).
A subserosal myoma distorting the tubo-ovarian anatomy may prevent egg pickup by the fimbria. An intramural myoma may obstruct adequate blood flow to the endometrial lining. The likelihood of this being significant increases with the number and size of the fibroids. The more space occupied by the fibroids, the greater the likelihood of intruding on blood vessels traveling to the endometrium. Diminished blood flow to the uterine lining can prevent implantation or increase the risk of miscarriage. Surgery may be recommended when it is feared that the number and size of fibroids is great enough to have such an impact. A submucosal myoma typically produces an IUD-like effect of irritating the uterine lining, which can prevent implantation. Endometrial polyps may have a similar effect.Symptoms
Both polyps and fibroids in the uterine cavity can cause occasional cramping and several types of abnormal uterine bleeding, including: heavy menstrual bleeding, spotting between periods, or bleeding after intercourse. They are almost always benign but may need to be removed to render implantation.